Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists


Attracting the most qualified employees and matching them to the jobs for which they are best suited is important for the success of any organization. However, many enterprises are too large to permit close contact between top management and employees. Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists provide this link. In the past, these workers have been associated with performing the administrative function of an organization, such as handling employee benefits questions or recruiting, interviewing, and hiring new personnel in accordance with policies and requirements that have been established in conjunction with top management. Today’s human resources workers juggle these tasks and, increasingly, consult top executives regarding strategic planning. They have moved from behind-the-scenes staff work to leading the company in suggesting and changing policies. Senior management is recognizing the importance of the human resources department to their financial success.
In an effort to improve morale and productivity and to limit job turnover, they also help their firms effectively use employee skills, provide training opportunities to enhance those skills, and boost employees’ satisfaction with their jobs and working conditions. Although some jobs in the human resources field require only limited contact with people outside the office, dealing with people is an essential part of the job.
In a small organization, a human resources generalist may handle all aspects of human resources work, and thus require a broad range of knowledge. The responsibilities of human resources generalists can vary widely, depending on their employer’s needs. In a large corporation, the top human resources executive usually develops and coordinates personnel programs and policies. (Executives are included in the Handbook statement on top executives.) These policies usually are implemented by a director or manager of human resources and, in some cases, a director of industrial relations.
The director of human resources may oversee several departments, each headed by an experienced manager who most likely specializes in one personnel activity, such as employment, compensation, benefits, training and development, or employee relations.
Employment and placement managers oversee the hiring and separation of employees and supervise various workers, including equal employment opportunity specialists and recruitment specialists. Employment, recruitment, and placement specialists recruit and place workers.
Recruiters maintain contacts within the community and may travel extensively, often to college campuses, to search for promising job applicants. Recruiters screen, interview, and sometimes test applicants. They also may check references and extend job offers. These workers must be thoroughly familiar with the organization and its personnel policies in order to discuss wages, working conditions, and promotional opportunities with prospective employees. They also must keep informed about equal employment opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action guidelines and laws, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act.
EEO officers, representatives, or affirmative action coordinators handle EEO matters in large organizations. They investigate and resolve EEO grievances, examine corporate practices for possible violations, and compile and submit EEO statistical reports.
Employer relations representatives, who usually work in government agencies, maintain working relationships with local employers and promote the use of public employment programs and services. Similarly, employment interviewers—whose many job titles include personnel consultants, personnel development specialists, and human resources coordinators—help to match employers with qualified jobseekers.
Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists conduct programs for employers and may specialize in specific areas such as position classifications or pensions. Job analysts, sometimes called position classifiers, collect and examine detailed information about job duties in order to prepare job descriptions. These descriptions explain the duties, training, and skills that each job requires. Whenever a large organization introduces a new job or reviews existing jobs, it calls upon the expert knowledge of the job analyst.
Occupational analysts conduct research, usually in large firms. They are concerned with occupational classification systems and study the effects of industry and occupational trends upon worker relationships. They may serve as technical liaison between the firm and other firms, government, and labor unions.
Establishing and maintaining a firm’s pay system is the principal job of the compensation manager. Assisted by staff specialists, compensation managers devise ways to ensure fair and equitable pay rates. They may conduct surveys to see how their firm’s rates compare with others and to see that the firm’s pay scale complies with changing laws and regulations. In addition, compensation managers often oversee their firm’s performance evaluation system, and they may design reward systems such as pay-for-performance plans.
Employee benefits managers and specialists handle the company’s employee benefits program, notably its health insurance and pension plans. Expertise in designing and administering benefits programs continues to take on importance as employer-provided benefits account for a growing proportion of overall compensation costs, and as benefit plans increase in number and complexity. For example, pension benefits might include savings and thrift, profit-sharing, and stock ownership plans; health benefits might include long-term catastrophic illness insurance and dental insurance. Familiarity with health benefits is a top priority for employee benefits managers and specialists, as more firms struggle to cope with the rising cost of healthcare for employees and retirees. In addition to health insurance and pension coverage, some firms offer employees life and accidental death and dismemberment insurance, disability insurance, and relatively new benefits designed to meet the needs of a changing workforce, such as parental leave, child and elder care, long-term nursing home care insurance, employee assistance and wellness programs, and flexible benefits plans. Benefits managers must keep abreast of changing Federal and State regulations and legislation that may affect employee benefits.
Employee assistance plan managers, also called employee welfare managers, are responsible for a wide array of programs covering occupational safety and health standards and practices; health promotion and physical fitness, medical examinations, and minor health treatment, such as first aid; plant security; publications; food service and recreation activities; carpooling and transportation programs, such as transit subsidies; employee suggestion systems; childcare and elder care; and counseling services. Childcare and elder care are increasingly important due to growth in the number of dual-income households and the elderly population. Counseling may help employees deal with emotional disorders, alcoholism, or marital, family, consumer, legal, and financial problems. Some employers offer career counseling as well. In large firms, certain programs, such as those dealing with security and safety, may be in separate departments headed by other managers.
Training and development managers and specialists conduct and supervise training and development programs for employees. Increasingly, management recognizes that training offers a way of developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building worker loyalty to the firm. Training is widely accepted as a method of improving employee morale, but this is only one of the reasons for its growing importance. Other factors include the complexity of the work environment, the rapid pace of organizational and technological change, and the growing number of jobs in fields that constantly generate new knowledge. In addition, advances in learning theory have provided insights into how adults learn, and how training can be organized most effectively for them.
Training managers provide worker training either in the classroom or onsite. This includes setting up teaching materials prior to the class, involving the class, and issuing completion certificates at the end of the class.
Training specialists plan, organize, and direct a wide range of training activities. Trainers respond to corporate and worker service requests. They consult with onsite supervisors regarding available performance improvement services and conduct orientation sessions and arrange on-the-job training for new employees. They help rank-and-file workers maintain and improve their job skills, and possibly prepare for jobs requiring greater skill. They help supervisors improve their interpersonal skills in order to deal effectively with employees. They may set up individualized training plans to strengthen an employee’s existing skills or teach new ones. Training specialists in some companies set up leadership or executive development programs among employees in lower level positions. These programs are designed to develop potential executives to replace those leaving the organization. Trainers also lead programs to assist employees with transitions due to mergers and acquisitions, as well as technological changes. In government-supported training programs, training specialists function as case managers. They first assess the training needs of clients, then guide them through the most appropriate training method. After training, clients may either be referred to employer relations representatives or receive job placement assistance.
Planning and program development is an important part of the training specialist’s job. In order to identify and assess training needs within the firm, trainers may confer with managers and supervisors or conduct surveys. They also periodically evaluate training effectiveness.
Depending on the size, goals, and nature of the organization, trainers may differ considerably in their responsibilities and in the methods they use. Training methods include on-the-job training; operating schools that duplicate shop conditions for trainees prior to putting them on the shop floor; apprenticeship training; classroom training; and electronic learning, which may involve interactive Internet-based training, multimedia programs, distance learning, satellite training, other computer-aided instructional technologies, videos, simulators, conferences, and workshops.
An organization’s director of industrial relations forms labor policy, oversees industrial labor relations, negotiates collective bargaining agreements, and coordinates grievance procedures to handle complaints resulting from management disputes with unionized employees. The director of industrial relations also advises and collaborates with the director of human resources, other managers, and members of their staff, because all aspects of personnel policy—such as wages, benefits, pensions, and work practices—may be involved in drawing up a new or revised union contract.
Labor relations managers and their staffs implement industrial labor relations programs. When a collective bargaining agreement is up for negotiation, labor relations specialists prepare information for management to use during negotiation, a process that requires the specialist to be familiar with economic and wage data and to have extensive knowledge of labor law and collective bargaining trends. The labor relations staff interprets and administers the contract with respect to grievances, wages and salaries, employee welfare, healthcare, pensions, union and management practices, and other contractual stipulations. As union membership continues to decline in most industries, industrial relations personnel are working more often with employees who are not members of a labor union.
Dispute resolution—attaining tacit or contractual agreements—has become increasingly important as parties to a dispute attempt to avoid costly litigation, strikes, or other disruptions. Dispute resolution also has become more complex, involving employees, management, unions, other firms, and government agencies. Specialists involved in dispute resolution must be highly knowledgeable and experienced, and often report to the director of industrial relations. Conciliators, or mediators, advise and counsel labor and management to prevent and, when necessary, resolve disputes over labor agreements or other labor relations issues. Arbitrators, sometimes called umpires or referees, decide disputes that bind both labor and management to specific terms and conditions of labor contracts. Labor relations specialists who work for unions perform many of the same functions on behalf of the union and its members.
Other emerging specialties include those of international human resources managers, who handle human resources issues related to a company’s foreign operations, and human resources information system specialists, who develop and apply computer programs to process personnel information, match jobseekers with job openings, and handle other personnel matters.

Related news articles
PEOPLE IN BUSINESS - 16 Oct 2006
Elmira Star-Gazette,Christopher Samsel has been named human resources manager of Gannett Co. ... Most recently, he was the human resources manager for the Curtis Circulation Co. ...

THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT: AARP touts Michigan firms for valuing ... - 16 Oct 2006
Detroit Free Press,Volkswagen of America, based in Auburn Hills, was recognized for its tenure-driven and disability programs, said human resources manager Ellen Scholti. ...

On the move: Regional Transit fills management ranks - 16 Oct 2006
Sacramento Bee,...the Dallas Area Rapid Transit. Donna Bonnel has been named human resources manager at RT. She will have managerial responsibilities ...

Promotions and Appointments: Dalrada elects 3 new board members - 16 Oct 2006
San Diego Daily Transcript (subscription),American Racing Capital Inc. announced executive changes. Kathleen Silhasek has joined RBF Consulting as an associate and human resources manager. ...

Two suits against Kanawha County settled - 16 Oct 2006
West Virginia Record,Shirley Cottrill, a former human resources manager, and Beverly Jarrett, a former executive administrative assistant, will be paid $5,000 apiece, with a ...

West Hawai'i suffers road closures, building damage - 16 Oct 2006
Honolulu Advertiser,..."My brother-in-law called and said 'you need to come home,' " said Carol Hood, a human resources manager at Mauna Kea Resort. "The inside of my house? ...

Showing its mettle - 16 Oct 2006
Charleston Gazette (subscription),...the silicon metals business. “They were our US competitors,� said Bess, the plant’s human resources manager. “It was a good ...

Human Resources Manager - Oct 4, 2006
This is Nottingham,A service that values its staff and empowers its patients Partnerships in Care Limited is the UK's leading independent provider of specialist mental health ...

Job of the Day: Corporate Human Resources Manager - Sep 25, 2006
WOAI,The Human Resource Manager delivers exceptional service by partnering with management on business decisions related to personnel, and supporting all Human ...

PERSONNEL FILE - Oct 15, 2006
SunHerald.com,Summerlin was previously employed with General Dynamics and Mississippi Baptist Health Systems, serving as human resources manager. Hollywood Casino Bay St. ...

ON THE MOVE - Oct 15, 2006
Times Daily (subscription),White will begin work at UNA on Oct. 30. She has been the human resources manager at Sara Lee Foods in Florence since 1998. White ...

HR dept. consolidated into dept. of finance and administration - Oct 10, 2006
Pittsburg Morning Sun,Nance said that he wanted to look into the possibility of an assistant city manager, rather than a human resources manager, but Gill said it was inefficient. ...

Beat interview blunders - Oct 15, 2006
New Zealand Herald,...person. For instance, a human resources manager may do an initial screening and be intent on gauging your fit with the organisation. ...

Top Stories - Oct 13, 2006
Northeast Georgian,This week, Cornelia Human Resources Manager Diane Feorino released the names of the three finalists for the city's top appointed position. ...

Aerospace Supplier Gentz Industries Announces Innovative Human ... - Oct 10, 2006
Yahoo! News (press release)According to Frank Litfin, Human Resources Manager for Gentz Industries, "Our partnership with National HR Solutions is a win-win for Gentz management and our ...

Donnelley awarded employer of year - Oct 15, 2006
Crawfordsville Journal Review,Services, Inc. "It's because of Bob Harvey,' said Nancy Alexander, human resources manager for the printing company. Doris Farrington ...

Workers with disabilities seek acceptance on the job - Oct 14, 2006
News Courier,...whether disabled or not to the same standards – in hiring process as well as in the work environment,� said Martha Smith, human resources manager at Lowe ...

Aerospace Supplier Gentz Industries Announces Innovative Human ... - Oct 10, 2006
PR Newswire (press release),...to their employees, and they have a willingness to partner to achieve their business objectives." According to Frank Litfin, Human Resources Manager for Gentz ...

TOP DRAWER - Oct 14, 2006
Columbia Daily Tribune,...annual meeting in Branson. Tiffany Johnson has joined Environmental Dynamics Inc. as human resources manager. Johnson holds a bachelor ...

Tourism board shock - Oct 14, 2006
Dispatch Online,ECTB human resources manager Bulelwa Mbanga and Kalingna Gopar have been appointed as acting CEO and marketing manager respectively. ...






More information on Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists from The U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook
Overview of Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists occupation
Number of Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists in the U.S.
Salary and earnings for Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists
Working conditions for Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists
Significant points for Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists
Training requirements for Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists




Labor Information Home | Occupational data by city | Search
Rainforests | Madagascar | What's new